ENG: The Syrian Opposition is an umbrella term for groups and individuals calling for regime change in Syria and who oppose its Ba'athist government. Opposition groups in Syria took a new turn in 2011 after the Syrian civil war as they united to form the Syrian National Council that has managed to get international support and recognized as partner for dialogue. The SNC was recognized by at least one country, Libya. A new opposition umbrella group, the National Coalition for Syrian Revolutionary and Opposition Forces, was formed in November 2012 and this has gained recognition as the "legitimate representative of the Syrian people" by the Gulf Cooperation Council and as a "representative of aspirations of Syrian people" by the Arab League.
Syria was under Emergency Law since 1963 when the Ba'ath Party took power in a coup. The head of state since 1971 has been a member of the al-Assad family. Under Hafez's time as a president of Syria, from 1980 onward opposition to the Ba'athist regime had been prohibited. Five principal security agencies served primarily to monitor political dissent. The state of emergency meant military courts apply martial law and special courts try political cases with no regard for human rights or due process. Prisoners were routinely tortured and held in appalling conditions. Following the death of Hafez al-Assad in June 2000 his son, Bashar, took over as new president of Syria. When the Arab Spring broke out, Syrian protesters began consolidating opposition councils.