ARA - الجمهورية العربية السورية دولة عربية تقع في جنوب غرب آسيا على الساحل الشرقي للبحر المتوسط. يحدها من الشمال تركيا و من الشرق العراق ومن الغرب لبنان و البحر المتوسط و من الجنوب الأردن وفلسطين المحتلة.
تقع سوريا بين خطي العرض 32- 37 شمالا وخطي الطول 35-42 شرقا مُشكّلة مع لبنان الشطر الشمالي لبلاد الشام، منح هذا الموقع الجغرافي سوريا امتيازا استراتيجيا من الناحية التجارية؛ فهي ملتقى القارات الثلاثة (آسيا - أوروبا - أفريقيا) وتتوسط المراكز الصناعية والتجارية الرئيسية في أوروبا ومراكز إنتاج النفط في منطقة الخليج العربي.
ENG - Syria (Arabic: سورية sūriyyaħ or سوريا sūriyā), officially the Syrian Arab Republic (Arabic: الجمهورية العربية السورية al-jumhūriyyaħ al-ʕarabiyyaħ as-sūriyyaħ), is an Arab country in Southwest Asia, bordering Lebanon and the Mediterranean Sea to the west, Israel to the southwest, Jordan to the south, Iraq to the east, and Turkey to the north. The name Syria, formerly comprised the entire region of the Levant, while the modern state encompasses the site of several ancient kingdoms and empires, including the Eblan civilization of the third millennium BC. In the Islamic era, its capital city, Damascus, was the seat of the Umayyad Empire and a provincial capital of the Mamluk Empire. Damascus is widely regarded as one of the oldest continuously inhabited cities in the world.
Modern Syria was created as a French mandate and attained independence in April 1946, as a parliamentary republic. The post-independence period was rocky, and a large number of military coups and coup attempts shook the country in the period 1949-1970. Syria has been under Emergency Law since 1962, effectively suspending most constitutional protections for citizens. The country has been governed by the Baath Party since 1963, although actual power is concentrated to the presidency and a narrow grouping of military and political strongmen. Syria's current president is Bashar al-Assad, son of Hafez al-Assad, who held office from 1970 until his death in 2000. Syria has played a major regional role, particularly through its central role in the Arab conflict with Israel, which since 1967 has occupied the Golan Heights, and by active involvement in Lebanese and Palestinian affairs.
The population is mainly Sunni Muslim, but with significant Alawi, Druze and Christian minorities. Since the 1960s, Alawite military officers have tended to dominate the country's politics. Ethnically, some 90% of the population is Arab, and the state is ruled by the Baath Party according to Arab nationalist principles, while approximately 10% belong to the Kurdish minority.
Syrian Arab Republic - الجمهورية العربية السورية
Al-Jumhūriyyah al-ʿArabiyyah as-Sūriyyah
Anthem: Homat el Diyar - Guardians of the Land
Capital (and largest city): Damascus
Official languages: Arabic
Government: Presidential republic under Emergency Law since 1963
- President: Bashar al-Assad
- Prime Minister: Muhammad Naji al-Otari