ARA - السلطة الوطنية الفلسطينية هي حكم ذاتي فلسطيني كان نتاج اتفاق اوسلو بين منظمة التحرير الفلسطينية و إسرائيل ، وأنشأت بقرار من المجلس المركزي الفلسطيني في دورته المنعقدة في 10 أكتوبر 1993 في تونس، ويعول عليها أن تكون نواة الدولة الفلسطينية المقبلة على جزء من ارض فلسطين التاريخية وهي الضفة الغربية و قطاع غزة و عاصمتها القدس ، والتي طالما حلم بها الشعب الفلسطيني
ENG - The Palestinian territories are composed of two discontiguous regions, the West Bank and the Gaza Strip, whose final status has yet to be determined. The territories, which were originally contained within the British Mandate of Palestine, were captured and occupied by Jordan and by Egypt in the late 1940s, and captured by Israel in the 1967 Six-Day War. "Palestinian territories" is one of a number of designations for these areas.
Following the signing of the Oslo Accords in 1993, portions of the territories have been governed in varying degrees by the Palestinian Authority. Israel does not consider East Jerusalem nor the former Israeli - Jordanian no man's land (the former annexed in 1980 and the latter in 1967) to be parts of the West Bank. Israel claims that both fall under full Israeli law and jurisdiction as opposed to the 58% of the Israeli-defined West Bank which is ruled by the Israeli 'Judea and Samaria Civil Administration', although this has not been recognized by any other country.
Palestine (Greek: Παλαιστίνη, Palaistinē; Latin: Palaestina; Hebrew: פלשתינהPalestina; Arabic: فلسطينFilasṭīn, Falasṭīn, Filisṭīn) is a name which has been widely used since Roman times to refer to the region between the Mediterranean Sea and the Jordan River. It is derived from a name used already much earlier for a narrower geographical region, mainly along the sea shore.
In its broader meaning as a geographical term, Palestine can refer to an area that includes contemporary Israel and the Palestinian territories, parts of Jordan, and parts of Lebanon and Syria.
In its narrow meaning, it refers to the area within the boundaries of the former British Mandate of Palestine (1920-1948) west of the Jordan River.
Palestine can also refer to the State of Palestine, declared by the Palestinian National Authority and recognized by over 100 countries. Within the context of the Israeli-Palestinian conflict, the use of the term Palestine can arouse fierce controversy.
In the early stages of the Zionist Movement, the term was used on occasion by Zionists (it is, for example, used in Herzl's Utopian book Altneuland, a basic Zionist text). However, already under British rule and even more after the foundation of Israel, Zionists came to consciously and vehemently reject the term in favour of "Eretz Yisrael", leaving it wholly identified with the Arab side in what became the Israeli-Palestinian Conflict.
On the same day that the State of Israel was announced, the Arab League announced that they would setup a single Arab civil administration throughout Palestine. The All-Palestine government was declared in Gaza on 1 October 1948, partly as an Arab League move to limit the influence of Transjordan over the Palestinian issue. The former mufti of Jerusalem, Haj Amin al-Husseini, was appointed as president.
The government was recognised by Egypt, Syria, Lebanon, Iraq, Saudi Arabia, and Yemen, but not by Transjordan (later known as Jordan) or any non-Arab country. It was little more than an Egyptian protectorate and had negligible influence or funding. Following the 1948 Arab-Israeli War, the area allocated to the Palestinian Arabs and the international zone of Jerusalem were occupied by Israel and the neighboring Arab states in accordance with the terms of the 1949 Armistice Agreements. Palestinian Arabs living in the Gaza Strip or Egypt were issued with All-Palestine passports until 1959, when Gamal Abdul Nasser, president of Egypt, issued a decree that annulled the All-Palestine government.
In addition to the UN-partitioned area allotted to the Jewish state, Israel captured and incorporated a further 26% of the Mandate territory (namely of the territory to the west of the Jordan river). Jordan captured and annexed about 21% of the Mandate territory, which it referred to as the West Bank (to differentiate it from the newly-named East Bank - the original Transjordan). Jerusalem was divided, with Jordan taking the eastern parts, including the Old City, and Israel taking the western parts. The Gaza Strip was captured by Egypt. In addition, Syria held on to small slivers of Mandate territory to the south and east of the Sea of Galilee, which had been allocated in the UN partition plan to the Jewish state.
For a description of the massive population movements, Arab and Jewish, at the time of the 1948 war and over the following decades, see Palestinian exodus and Jewish exodus from Arab lands.
In the course of the Six Day War in June 1967, Israel captured the West Bank (including East Jerusalem) from Jordan and the Gaza Strip from Egypt.
From the 1960s onward, the term "Palestine" was regularly used in political contexts. Various declarations, such as the 15 November 1988 proclamation of a State of Palestine by the PLO referred to a country called Palestine, defining its borders based on the U.N. Resolution 242 and 383 and the principle of land for peace.
The Green Line was the pre-1967 border established by many UN resolutions including those mentioned above.
According to the CIA World Factbook, of the ten million people living between Jordan and the Mediterranean Sea, about five million (49%) identify as Palestinian, Arab, Bedouin and/or Druze. One million of those are citizens of Israel. The other four million are residents of the West Bank and Gaza, which are under the jurisdiction of the Palestinian National Authority.
In the West Bank, 360,000 Israelis have settled in a hundred scattered new towns and settlements with connecting corridors. The 2.5 million West Bank Palestinians live primarily in four blocs centered in Hebron, Ramallah, Nablus, and Jericho. In 2005, Israel withdrew its army and all the Israeli settlers were evacuated from the Gaza Strip, in keeping with Ariel Sharon's plan for unilateral disengagement, and control over the area was transferred to the Palestinian Authority.
The Palestine Liberation Organization has enjoyed status as a non-member observer at the United Nations since 1974, and continues to represent "Palestine" there. After the 1988 declaration of state, the State of Palestine was formally recognized by 117 United Nations member states. Palestine is also represented at international sporting events, like the Olympics and Paralympics and films from Palestine have won awards at international cinema events, like the Oscars.
Palestinian National Authority
السلطة الوطنية الفلسطينية
As-Sulta Al-Wataniyya Al-Filastīniyya
Anthem: Biladi (The original one is Mawtiny)
Capital: Disputed. (Ramallah and Gaza City are administrative capitals while Jerusalem is claimed as capital).
Largest city: Gaza
Government: Semi-presidential; Islamic Socialist republic
The Palestinian National Authority (PNA or PA; Arabic: السلطة الوطنية الفلسطينيةAs-Sulṭa Al-Waṭaniyyah Al-Filasṭīniyyah) is the administrative organization established to govern parts of the Palestinian territories of the West Bank and Gaza Strip.
The Palestinian National Authority was formed in 1994, pursuant to the Oslo Accords between the Palestine Liberation Organization (PLO) and the government of Israel, as a 5-year interim body during which final status negotiations between the two parties were to take place but never did. According to the Oslo Accords, the Palestinian Authority was designated to have control over both security-related and civilian issues in Palestinian urban areas (referred to as "Area A"), and only civilian control over Palestinian rural areas ("Area B"). The remainder of the territories, including Israeli settlements, the Jordan Valley region, and bypass roads between Palestinian communities, were to remain under exclusive Israeli control ("Area C"). East Jerusalem was excluded from the Accords.